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Doncaster, West Riding of Yorkshire

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Up to 1834

The earliest proposal to establish a workhouse in Doncaster dates from 1719, when a group of a dozen subscribers, consisting of the corporation and local landed gentry, provided £558 to purchase what the borough corporation act book describes as 'a workhouse or a house of maintenance, to get the poor of this town to work, who have become very numerous'. Despite this, it appears that a 'house of maintenance' for the poor was not in existence until about 1730, located in a house built originally by Alderman Pell.

Doncaster House of Maintenance.
Courtesy of Doncaster Archives.

The initial intention appears to have been to provide the poor with work and various schemes were successively introduced — worsted weaving, cutlery making and sailcloth manufacture among them — with as little long-term success as similar schemes elsewhere. A copy of the rules for this institution produced in 1747 regulated the activities of the governing committee, the master and mistress of the workhouse and its inmates, and laid down a dietary:

Orders to be Observed by the Governors of the House of Maintenance for the Poor of Doncaster

  1. That they take care that all the persons who claim and want relief of the parish shall be put into this house and that they suffer no one to have any relief but in and from this house.
  2. That they allow no person to beg from door to door but carry all such before the mayor or justice of the peace in order to their being sent to this house or upon their refusal to go into it to their being published according to law.
  3. That they suffer no person to have relief in or from this house if any of their relations who are obliged by law to maintain 'em are in a capacity of doing it.
  4. That they do not allow any person in a family falling sick or lame etc. to have relief in or from this house unless the whole family come into it.
  5. That they suffer no person to take advantage of this house by coming into it in winter and going out in summer but dismiss those who are desirous of going out only at the same time of year at which they came in.
  6. That they provide proper books to keep all the accounts and register all orders relating to this house which books shall be shown to any of the parishioners for their satisfaction or to any persons (for their information) who are desirous to pursue the same good design in other places.
  7. That they give a bill of fare to the master and mistress.
  8. That they appoint which prayers shall be used in this house.
  9. That one of them take care to visit the house every day and whosoever fails of doing so either in their own person of by a deputy (substituted out of their own number) shall forfeit six pence for every such default to be disposed of by the majority of the governors.
  10. That all the governors or any three of them meet at nine o'clock every Tuesday morning in the house to consult together and make such orders and regulations as from time to time there may be occasion.
  11. That the visitors in their day shall enquire whether the master and mistress observe the rules prescribed them as also whether the poor behave themselves regularly and decently and set down all complaints and grievances.
  12. That if any difficult case shall happen it shall not be determined by the visiting governors of the day but referred to the general meeting every Tuesday or if it require immediate dispatch a majority of the governors shall be called together or for the want of a majority the case shall be determined by any three of them.
  13. That the governors shall be diligent and unanimous in this undertaking and strictly observe all the rules agreed on amongst them for the carrying on and persecuting this work to the glory of God and the good of the poor committed to their charge.

Orders to be Observed by the Master and Mistress

  1. That they admit no person into this house or dismiss no person out of it without an order from the governors and that they suffer no persons admitted to this house to go out of it on pretence of being sent for by their friends unless a note be sent by their friends who want them, expressing what their business is with them and if the master thinks it proper to let them go their friends shall pay him so much money as may make up for the loss of their time during their absence.
  2. That they take care that the bill of fare given by the governors be punctually observed every day that the provisions be cleanly and well ordered that all persons have their allowance of the same at due hours viz. their breakfast at nine o'clock and half an hour to eat it their dinners at twelve and an hour allowed them to eat it and to walk about after it before they go to their work. Their supper in summer at half year at seven o'clock in the winter at five.
  3. That the provisions and necessaries of the house be contracted for by the master and mistress that they take bills for the same and file them for the perusal of the governors in order to their being paid once a quarter by the overseers of the poor and in contracting for such necessaries they shall deal with the several tradesmen in the town in their turns so long as they supply the house at a market price.
  4. That they assemble the family together and go to prayers with them every morning before they go to work and every evening after supper and take care that everyone make proper responses and behave themselves in a decent and devout manner.
  5. That they take care that grace before and after meat be audibly and decently said by one of the children.
  6. That they take care that every Sunday be employed in prayers in the house morning and evening and by so many as are able in coming to church both parts of the day where the master must see that they behave themselves decently. The rest of the day is to be employed in teaching the children their catechism in reading a selection of the Whole Duty of Man to the family audibly and distinctly and in teaching the children some proper prayers to be said by them in private and every night before they go to bed and every morning as soon as they rise.
  7. That they use no other prayers in public and teach no other to be used by the children in private but such as are prescribed by the governors.
  8. That they take care that the poor be set to work from Lady Day [25 March] to Michaelmas [29 September] from six o'clock in the morning to 7 at night and from Michaelmas to Lady Day from seven to four and that they rise by five o'clock and go to bed by nine [in] the summer half year and in the winter half year rise by six o'clock and go to bed by seven.
  9. That they take care that the children have their heads combed and their hands and faces washed every morning that they be shifted with clean linen once a week and that their beds be duly made and provided with clean sheets once in three weeks and that the rooms be swept and kept clean.
  10. That they take care that the fires and candles be extinguished every night and that the poor be locked up in their apartments at the appointed hour.
  11. That neither the master nor the mistress sell or suffer any distilled liquors to come into the house nor any of the poor to smoke tobacco in the workhouse or their lodging rooms.
  12. That when any of the family are sick they shall acquaint the visiting governor that due and timely care may be taken of them.
  13. That they give an account of the profits of the poor people's labours to the governors as often as is required and also how they have expended or used the things at any time committed to their charge and shall confirm the same by oath before a magistrate if required.
  14. That the master and mistress are not to strike any of the grown up people but if they are disorderly are to put them into the dark hole till the visiting governor comes nor are they to strike any of the children but with a rod.
  15. That the master and mistress shall not make any entertainments for their friends in this house without leave of the governors.
  16. That neither of them shall go out of this house into the town etc. but upon occasions as shall be allowed by the governors.

Orders to be Observed by the Poor in the said House

  1. That if the master and mistress shall have occasion to employ any person in this house about anything that is necessary to be done there they shall immediately obey his or her order and do the same.
  2. That if any parent or parents able to work come into this house with their children shall be disposed of to any persons care whom the master and mistress think proper and the parents shall be set to work.
  3. That the poor people (who are able) shall follow the master or mistress to church every Sunday the men women boys and girls respectively going two by two and after divine service is ended shall return to this house in the same decent order without calling or staying anywhere by the way.
  4. That they carefully avoid all contentions and quarrels among themselves that there be no cursing and swearing no revilings or bitterness amongst them but they are to endeavour to live in love and unity together as becoming Christians and by their mutual kindness and good offices do all they can to make one another easy and happy.
MorningNoonNight
SundayA quart milk porridge men and women lesser proportionatelyFlesh meat roots and pudding broth and bread with only one of the above and a mug of beerBread and cheese and a mug of beer
MondayAs SundayPease porridge or hasty pudding and in the afternoon a mug of beerAs Sunday
TuesdayAs SundayPuddings and in the afternoon beerAs Sunday
WednesdayAs SundayFurmity and in the afternoon beerAs Sunday
ThursdayAs Sunday
FridayAs Sunday
SaturdayAs Sunday
Christmas Day, Easter Day, and Whitsunday — Plum Puddings

Three parishes in the area of what became the Doncaster Poor Law Union — Bawtry, Barnby Dun and Tickhill — also established poorhouses. The regime in these on the eve of their dissolution is known from a report made to the West Riding court of quarter sessions in January 1836. The report also includes the workhouses at Fishlake, Hatfield and Thorne, parishes which were incorporated in the adjacent Thorne Poor Law Union.

Report on the Workhouses in the Lower Division Of Strafforth and Tickhill presented at Sheffield Sessions, October 1835, and thence Adjourned to Doncaster, January 1836.

The Power of Magistrates to order Relief out of the Workhouse being in a great Measure taken away by the recent Poor Law Act. I have pursuant to the Directions of... 30 G.3 c.49 visited the Workhouse in the Lower Division of Strafforth and Tickhill hereinafter named and respectfully report

That generally speaking they are in a good and orderly state, the Bread and Provisions being apparently sufficient both in Quantity and Quality and the Apartments clean and well ventilated — With respect to the Sleeping Rooms at Hatfield, Fishlake, Barnby Dunn and Bawtry, owing to the filthy condition in which these Establishments were formerly kept the Fabric of the Buildings both Walls and Floor Boards are so completely infested with vermin that in spite of every Endeavour by Whitewashing, taking down Bed Stocks etc., it is impossible to extirpate or even keep them within moderate Bounds of Comfort, and the Paupers have in consequence suffered a serious Privation of Rest during the recent hot Summer.

I have therefore to recommend that an Order of Sessions do issue to the above Parishes to provide Iron Bedsteads with elastic Ribs in lieu of those at present in Use, which are of Wood and mostly old and want renewing. The Effect of Iron Bedsteads in preventing communication with the invested Parts of a House is generally admitted, and will I trust in this Instance prove a Means of greatly relieving the Paupers from further Annoyance.

For more particular information relative to each Workhouse I must refer to the Schedule hereunto annexed, and which has been drawn up after Reference to the Respective Overseers: The Diet Table at Thorne is the best as they have Meat in some shape or other every Day but Wednesday.

Bawtry is decidedly the worst Workhouse, all the Beds being of Chaff and only 12 ½ pounds of Meat for 10 Persons including Bone and Suet of which latter is made Dumplings their only Diet three days in the Week, and no Bacon as in other Workhouses.

Barmby Dunn and Bawtry Workhouses ought to be more frequently whitewashed not less than three times a Year — All the Parishes except Fishlake bake once a Week at least, and I have ordered that Parish to do the same.

It would be very advantageous for the Clergyman of each Parish authorised in the Manner pointed out by the 30 G.3. c.49, to inspect the Workhouse more frequently than can possibly be done by distant Magistrates.

The Schedule

Bawtry Workhouse visited 12th October, 1835.

Elizabeth Spencer a Young Singlewoman with 2 Bastards Daughter of a Labourer in Bawtry, has been 5 or 6 Months Mistress, was Pauper in Workhouse 3 or 4 Years, has £1 a Quarter Wages.

4 Men work on Roads, when able, and in Garden.
3 Women do Work of House, including Mistress.
3 Boys — 1 four Years old — 1 two — 1 nine.
9 Bed Rooms, and 8 Beds — all Chaff.

Harworth, Edlington and Firbeck join: two latter out of Limits 59 G.3. c.12 - Whitewashed twice a Year; Bedstocks often taken down on account of Bugs. Bake once a Week.

Overseers send in 12½ lbs. Beer weekly, including Bone and Suet, and 7 pints of New Milk allowed daily. No stint in Bread and Potatoes — No Bacon, No Tea (except to Sick)
Breakfast and Supper. Boiled Milk and Bread.

S.Boiled Meat and Broth
M.Suet Dumplings
Tu.Meat and Potato Pie
W.Suet Dumplings
Th.Meat and Broth
F.Stewed Potatoes and Bit Meat
S.Suet Dumplings

Mr Nicholson and Mr Parkinson take the Poor in annual Rotation — and bring in a Bill.

Barmby Dunn [Barnby Dun] Workhouse visited October 25. 1835.

John Watson Brockbank and Mary his Wife Master and Mistress appointed about 5 Years ago. Have one child (a Daughter) at home at present.

Kirk Sandall, Pollington and Cowick join this Workhouse, two latter out of Limits prescribed by 59 G.3. c.12.

Contract 3s. per week a Head with 4 acres of Meadow Land and a Garden ¾ acre.

4 Men — 4 Women — 2 Boys- Total 10.
7 Bed Rooms, 5 Beds, one extra Room for Sick.
Clothing, Beds and Bedding belong to the several Parishes — All Chaff, no sheets, and very bad and scanty Bedding.
Whitewashed only once a Year.
Bedstocks taken down once a Year.
Bake twice a Week.
Labour belongs to Parish, but there is none beyond Work of House and Garden.

Each Township has its own Doctor, Mr. Brice of Hatfield farms Barmby Dunn at 10 guineas a Year.

Breakfast and Supper, boiled Milk and Bread, sometimes Porridge.

Su.Boiled Meat and Bacon, and Yorkshire Pudding
M.Broth, Potatoes, Pudding and Dumplings
Tu.Meat, pudding and Potatoes
W.Meat Pie and Pudding
Th.Same as Monday
F.Meat and Pudding
S.Pie and Pudding.

No stint in Bread or Potatoes — Tea when Sick.

About 60 Stone of Bacon a Year fed chiefly on Premises.
12 lb. of Beef weekly including Bone and Suet, with a Beast Heart.


Tickhill Workhouse, reported August 1835 by Rev. E. H. Brooksbank.

Stephen Wilkinson and Matilda his Wife appointed 1828, formerly Schoolmaster and Parish Accountant at Cantley. Salary, Board Lodging & £50 per annum. They have one Daughter resident in the House.

No. of Paupers. Men 9. Boys 9 — Women 7. Girls 6 = 31
No. of Bedrooms 11, Beds 20.
Beds, Feather, Flock and Chaff, sheets generally allowed.

Stump Bed stocks, nearly free from Bugs, but taken down 3 or 4 times a year as occasion requires.
House whitewashed 5 or 6 times a Year.
Clothing belonging to Parish.
Able bodied Men work in Parish Quarry — Women do House Business 7 to 5 hours for working.
Medical Contract is 20 Guineas a Year, with 10s. 6d. each Birth.
Rossington and Stainton join this Workhouse, but have only one Pauper at present.

Diet — Breakfast & Supper — Bread and Milk Porridge

Su.Cold Meat and Potatoes
M.Suet Dumplings
T.Potato Pie with broken Meat
W.Lob scouse Dinner, i.e. broken Victuals boiled with potatoes.
Th.Potato Pie
F.Cold Meat
S.Broth

Bake once a Week.

Tea to Sick and Aged — Tobacco at 4 oldest.
Small Beer only occasionally to some.
Bacon — 70 Stone a Year.
Beef — 2 stones per week, including Suet — without Bone.

After 1834

Doncaster Poor Law Union was formed on 4th July 1837. Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, 58 in number, representing its 54 constituent parishes and townships as listed below (figures in brackets indicate numbers of Guardians if more than one):

West Riding of Yorkshire: Adwick-le-Street, Adwick-upon-Dearne, Armthorpe, Askern [Askerne], Austerfield, Awkley or Auckley, Balby with Hexthorpe, Barnbrough, Barnby upon Don or Barnby Dunn, Bawtry, Bentley with Arksey, Bilham, Blaxton, Bolton-upon-Dearne, Braithwell, Brodsworth-cum-Pigburn and Scawsby, Burghwallis, Cadeby, Campsall, Cantley, Clayton with Frickley, Conisbrough, Denaby, Doncaster Borough (4), Edlington, Fenwick, Hampole, Hickleton, High Melton, Hooton Pagnell, Kirk Bramwith, Kirk Sandall and Trumfleet, Langthwaite with Tilts, Long Sandall with Wheatley, Loversall, Marr, Mexborough, Moss, Norton, Owston, Rossington, Skellow, Sprotbrough, Stainton with Hellaby, Stancill with Wellingley and Wilseck, Stotfold, Sutton, Thorpe in Balne, Thurnscoe, Tickhill (2), Wadworth, Warmsworth.
County of Nottingham: Finningley, Misson.
Later Additions: Carr House and Elm Field (from 1862).

The population falling within the Union at the 1831 census had been 31,728 with parishes and townships ranging in size from Stotfold (population 9) to Doncaster itself (10,801). The average annual poor-rate expenditure for the period 1834-36 had been £11,275 or 7s.1d. per head of the population.

Hexthorpe Lane Workhouse

In 1837, the Doncaster Board of Guardians purchased a 2.5 acre site in Hexthorpe, at the south-east corner of Hexthorpe Lane and Cherry, or Love, Lane. A Union workhouse was erected in 1839-40 at a cost of £8,000. In 1841, the old workhouse and vagrant office were sold off for £665. The architect of the new workhouse is not known and the building did not closely follow any of the popular workhouse plans of the period. A reception block with a central archway lay to the north. At the centre stood the main accommodation block, cruciform in layout, with a chapel at the north side. Boys' and girls' school blocks were placed the far sides to the west and east. An infirmary lay at the south of the site. The site location and layout are shown on the 1852 OS map below.

Doncaster Hexthorpe Lane site, 1852.

From 1853, the less-eligibility of the workhouse was progressively increased by its proximity to the industrial noise and smoke of the engineering works of the Great Northern Railway and the main north-south and east-west railway routes. This moved to Doncaster from Boston, Lincolnshire, in that year and, throughout the next half-century, continuously expanded its locomotive and railway-carriage building activities. Charles Hatfield, the owner-editor of a local newspaper editor, observed:

The approach to the workhouse is not particularly attractive: in its original state, it almost stood in the centre of green fields, fragrant orchards and cultivated gardens. It is now hemmed in on every side; and as the visitor advances towards it... he would imagine that it belonged to the Great Northern Railway Company. The railway runs close to it, shaking the very foundation... there is perpetual din and confusion, with smoke and dust, at times enough to stifle the robust.

Nevertheless, the Guardians continued to improve the facilities. In the 1850s and 1860s the infirmary premises were twice enlarged and new school rooms built. Major extensions were made between 1881 and 1883 at a cost of £6,472, more than three-quarters of the cost of the original buildings. These extensions and improvements were necessary because the population of the town was expanding rapidly in the second half of the nineteenth century, largely as the result of the expansion of railway engineering. Outside the town, however, the population of the union was in decline, as the opportunities in agricultural employment continued their long-term decline

Doncaster Hexthorpe Lane entrance and inmates, 1890s.
Reproduced by kind permission of Doncaster Library and Information Services.

Doncaster Hexthorpe Lane inmates, 1890s.
Reproduced by kind permission of Doncaster Library and Information Services.

A description of the workhouse was provided in 1864 by William Sheardown:

THE UNION WORKHOUSE.

In 1837 the poor law guardians purchased for £690. two and a half acres of land in the Hexthorpe-road, on which was erected and finished in 1839 a Workhouse for the use of fifty-four parishes and townships.
   The building, built by Messrs. Lister, from designs by Messrs. Hurst and Moffatt, cost £8,000. including the fittings. The old workhouses, rented in the various townships, were given up. The one at Doncaster, a freehold of the township, was sold in 1841 for £330. The building will accommodate three hundred inmates, and is in the old English style, with pointed gables, having moulded stone copings, stone string courses dividing the stories, and stone plinths. In the centre is the chapel, which projects partly from the main building, and is a large, lofty, and well ventilated room, lighted by two long narrow round-headed windows on each side; and a large triplet window, with stone mullions, of the same character, at the west end. The chapel has two short galleries, and is fitted with a reading desk and benches. It is also used as a dining-room. The west gable is surmounted by a bell-turret. Over the chapel is a large room used as a lying-in ward.
   The north side of the house is occupied by the females; the ground floor contains the matron's day-room, the infirm women, able-bodied women, and girls' day-rooms; the first floor has the school-mistresses' day-room, the infirm women, able-bodied women, and matron's bedrooms. The second floor is used for the female store-room, the schoolmistress' and girls' bed-rooms. The south side contains the master's office, and on the first floor the matron's work-room, the school-master's day-room, with the bed-rooms for males, corresponding with the side for females. The kitchen is situate at the back of the chapel, with a smaller kitchen, bread pantry, larder, and sculleries. The lodge buildings were built with accommodation for the porter, infectious ward, vagrant wards, and men's receiving ward, a probationary ward, and women's receiving and vagrant ward. There are baths and a supply of water. The wash-house, mangle-house, and laundry are part of these buildings. The girls have a wash-house for industrial instruction. The Infirmary is a large detached building, and is of two stories, with accommodation for the nurse, and a surgery. There are spacious exercising and work yards. A garden of about half an acre, is at the back, and is used for exercise for the sick. Behind the principal building, over the sculleries, &c. are boys' and girls' school-rooms, which were erected in 1859, at a cost, including Sittings, of £350. The infirmary was enlarged to its present state, in 1845, at an expense of £300. A sanitary improvement was effected in 1853, at an outlay of £393. by the drainage of the buildings and yards ; a plunging bath for the boys ; and making the girls' wash-house. Water was also conveyed by pipes for the premises, for the baths, and for flushing the drains. A new building was added in 1856, from a plan by Mr. Godfrey, as a fever ward; this cost £408.
   The Workhouse was enlarged in 1863, by the addition of an infirmary for fever patients and other infectious diseases, rooms for attendants, and two new vagrant wards. This was effected by Mr. Godfrey, the architect, by raising and adding to the front entrance. Messrs. Wood and Son's tender was £600. for the building; Mr. Thrush, for plumbing and glazing, £54. 7s.
   The rooms of the Workhouse are lofty and well ventilated, and are kept scrupulously clean, and everything proves it to be a well ordered establishment. The dietary is liberal, and care is exercised that the provision be of the best quality. The guardians rent three acres of land for the purpose of training the boys to industry, and the senior girls assist in the domestic arrangements when not engaged in the school.
   There is one religious service on Sunday, and another on a week-day evening, besides the pastoral visits of the chaplain to the sick, the aged, and infirm, and his superintendence of the schools. The Holy Communion is administered.

In January, 1867, the workhouse received a visit from Poor Law Board inspector Mr HB Farnall. His report was rather less complimentary than Sheardown's and included the following comments:

I inspected this workhouse on the 20th of December 1866. It is built to contain 300 inmates, and I found 238 persons in it, of whom 150 were old and infirm and temporarily disabled, 12 were able-bodied, and 76 were children.
   The site of this house is become unsuitable, and its area too limited: it abuts upon the station of the Great Northern Railway, and the noise and smoke continually proceeding thence must be very trying and probably injurious to the sick, and very annoying both to the officers and the inmates generally.
   The accommodation for the several classes of inmates is generally sufficient; but there are several defects in the internal arrangements of the house; for instance, the lavatories for the children require to be reconstructed; the arrangements for obtaining hot water both for domestic purposes and for the sick are insufficient; there are no separate sick wards for children: the windows in some of the sick wards are placed too high up in the walls. There are sick wards in the body of the house, and there are also detached fever and infectious wards, but patients with sore legs and offensive cases are sent to these detached wards, and it would, therefore, as it seems to me, be very unsafe to send bad fever cases to these wards.
   The dinners for the sick who are in these detached wards, are sent from the body of the house, and cannot, therefore, be as hot as they should be; the room in which the clothes of the patients in these. wards are washed is far too small ; the floors of the receiving wards are of stone, and the re are no waterclosets attached to these wards; and there is only one bath for these wards, and that is in the women's receiving ward, and not in a room annexed.
   The ventilation and means of lighting the wards are in a satisfactory condition.
   The beds, bedding, and utensils are good, but the conveniences for washing are insufficient. The classification is tolerably complete; the diet, clothing, and employment of the inmates are good, but the means of affording recreation to the aged and infirm inmates are insufficient.
   There are two paid nurses, but there should also be, as I think, two paid night nurses; for night nursing by paupers cannot be depended upon in the least.
   The medical officer finds all the drugs but cod-liver oil; it would be more advantageous to the poor and the ratepayers if the Guardians found all the drugs.
   I found 20 inmates who were not in communion with the Church of England; their ministers are permitted to visit them, and the Roman Catholics are allowed to go out to their place of worship. The schools are in the workhouse, and the children are generally separated from the adult inmates.

There is detailed information available about the diet on which the paupers were fed in Doncaster workhouse in the early 1860s. The different diets for able-bodied men and for able-bodied women and children aged from nine to sixteen are shown in the two tables. The only difference between the diets was that men received two ounces of bread a day more that the women and children and two ounces more suet or other pudding on Wednesday and Saturday. The elderly and infirm received a pint of tea instead of the milk porridge and five ounces of butter and seven of sugar each week, at the discretion of the Guardians. No diet was prescribed for children under nine years.

In 1995, a hospital dietician provided Doncaster Archives with comments on the dietary. As the precise details of the ingredients were not given, she could not provide a fully scientific assessment of the diet. It seems, though, that in the course of a week, that the able-bodied diets were providing an intake of more than the current recommended minimum level of both calories and protein. The level of vitamin C, however, would probably have been just under two-thirds of the current recommended intake, with the potatoes the only source. The diet for the elderly and infirm was not so nutritious. Both protein and calorie levels would have been lower with the substitution of tea for porridge, but would still have been comfortably above the minimum levels currently thought to be necessary.

Doncaster Workhouse: Dietary for Able-Bodied Men in the Early 1860s

 SunMonTuesWedThursFriSat
Breakfast       
Bread (ounces)7777777
Milk porridge (pints)1.51.51.51.51.51.51.5
Dinner        
Cooked Meat (ounces)5 5 5  
Potatoes etc. (ounces)12 12 12  
Soup (pints) 1.5   1.5 
Bread (ounces) 3   3 
Pudding, Suet etc. (ounces)   14   14
Supper        
Bread (ounces)7777777
Cheese (ounces)2       

Doncaster Workhouse: Dietary for Able-Bodied Women and Children
Aged 9 to 16 the Early 1860s

 SunMonTuesWedThursFri Sat
Breakfast       
Bread (ounces)6666666
Milk Porridge (pints)1.51.51.51.51.51.51.5
Dinner        
Cooked Meat (ounces)5 5 5  
Potatoes etc. (ounces)12 12 12  
Soup (pints) 1.5   1.5 
Bread (ounces) 3   3 
Pudding, Suet etc. (ounces)   12  12
Supper       
Bread (ounces)6666666
Cheese (ounces)2      
Milk Porridge (pints) 1.51.51.51.51.5 1.5

A decade after the workhouse had been extensively renovated, the Guardians decided on the building of new premises at Springwell Lane, Balby, on the outskirts of Doncaster. The old workhouse was offered for sale in September 1901 and sold to the GNR for the extension of its works. The buildings were used for storage and were not demolished until the late 1960s.

Despite the original intention of the proponents of the new poor law rigorously to enforce the 'workhouse test', the majority of paupers continued to receive relief outside the workhouse. In Doncaster, for example, the statistics for both in-door and out-door relief were as follows:

YearIndoor relief

Outdoor Relief

1840

171

1346
1845

272

1936
1860159832
18702641049
1877227736
1878268732

The census of 1871 shows that those of working age were the minority in the workhouse. Over a third were aged up to fourteen and a similar proportion were over sixty years of age. The actual number of 'able bodied' were reduced by the presence of widows and the mentally and physically handicapped.

One of the children in the workhouse in 1871 was a twelve-year-old called John Broxholme. Charles Hadfield tells the story of how he was given his name:

A cruel desertion came to the knowledge of the writer in the summer of 1862. A hand carriage was observed on Thorne Road [Doncaster] coming from the direction of Wheatley Toll Bar, accompanied by a man and a woman. Soon afterwards, a boy, aged three years, neatly clad, was noticed alone in Broxholme lane. The little wanderer excited the compassion of a passer-by, and he was taken to the house of a god Samaritan in the Holmes. No enquiries were made for the stranger; a week elapsed, still no tidings were heard of its inhuman parents. Hence, an application was made to the Board of Guardians on Saturday, 19 July, and the facts elicited... The supposed parents were traced to Sheffield. Mr Jackson, the chief constable, discovered their whereabouts, but as it transpired that no marriage between them had been consummated, and that they were apparently destitute of visible means, it was deemed desirable to abandon all thoughts of prosecution. On 26 July the Workhouse Visiting Committee requested the Master to enter the child in his register 'John Broxholme'.

Springwell Lane Workhouse

The design for the new Springwell Lane workhouse was opened to competition with the successful entrant being JH Morton of South Shields who went on to design a workhouse for the nearby Hunslet Union. Springwell Lane, erected in 1897-1900, was intended to accommodate up to 600. It was based on a pavilion-block design with a central administrative building connected by corridors to separate blocks for the different classes of inmate.

At the official opening of the new workhouse in December 1900, the Chairman of the Guardians pronounced the buildings to be the most up-to-date in England and that their fame had spread so far that the Emperor and Empress of Russia had asked for the plans so as to build a similar establishment in their own country. He was given to understand that representatives of the Russian Government would visit the place.

The site layout and location, which in the 1890s was virtually rural, are shown on the 1930 map below. Workhouses throughout the country had, by this date, been renamed Poor Law Institutions as the result of an order of the Local Government Board in 1913.

Doncaster Springwell Lane site, 1930.

The contract was made for building the new workhouse on 1 December 1897 and the work was completed in the autumn of 1900, although the official opening was delayed until 4 December through a problem over electrical installation. The Doncaster Gazette, 7 December 1900, includes a report of the official opening of the new workhouse. The new premises had cost £63,000, exclusive of the cost of the thirty-acre site and the furnishings and fittings, or about £70,000 in total. The buildings consisted of six distinct groups:

  1. the entrance building, containing the receiving wards, the vagrant wards, porter's accommodation and storage
  2. the main building (the workhouse proper), comprising a central administrative block with offices, master's house and dining room and, in pavilions on each side, accommodation for the 'male and female, aged and able-bodied classes' with day rooms, bath rooms and other facilities
  3. the laundry and boiler house building
  4. the infirmary building, with south-facing wards, nurses' accommodation, and dispensary
  5. the isolation hospital, self-contained on a remote part of the site, and
  6. the lunacy building, for 'imbeciles, epileptics, and short period lunatics' (the chronic cases were presumably transferred to the West Riding county asylums).

Doncaster Springwell Lane workhouse bird's-eye view from the east, c.1900.
© Peter Higginbotham.

There were also cottages for elderly married couples on the site, to the south of the main building, but 'entirely separate from it'.

Doncaster Springwell Lane entrance building from the east, early 1900s.
Reproduced by kind permission of Doncaster Library and Information Services.

Doncaster Springwell Lane officers and staff, early 1900s.
Reproduced by kind permission of Doncaster Library and Information Services.

Doncaster Springwell Lane workhouse from the south-west, c.1905.
© Peter Higginbotham.

After the Local Government Act, 1929 abolished the Poor Law Guardians from 1 April 1930, responsibility for public assistance, and the former workhouse, fell upon Doncaster county borough council. The council renamed the premises Springwell House Public Assistance Institution. The buildings continued to function as a local authority hospital and provide accommodation for the destitute and for those who in the language of the period were classed as 'mentally deficient'. Initially, because of the 'poor quality of the accommodation' it was proposed not to adopt Springwell House as a hospital within the National Health Service. However, in the event the premises were taken over by the NHS and were designated as the Western Hospital in 1950. The hospital was used mostly for maternity and geriatric patients. It was demolished in 1974 and the site redeveloped for a primary school and private housing.

Staff

Inmates

Records

Note: many repositories impose a closure period of up to 100 years for records identifying individuals.

  • Doncaster Archives, King Edward Road, Balby, Doncaster DN4 0NA. No records of the Doncaster Board of Guardians survive, but there are notes taken at their board meetings from 1862 to 1890 (although in a barely-decipherable hand) amongst the papers of William Aldam of Frickley, a local magistrate and ex officio member of the board. Surviving workhouse include registers of births and deaths from 1893, and registers of religious creed, in effect a record of all who were admitted to the workhouse, from 1904. There are also admission and discharge books for years 1934 to 1942. The contract plans of the new workhouse, dated 1896, are also available.

Bibliography

  • The report to West Riding Quarter Sessions on the state of workhouses in 1835 in the Doncaster area appears in the proceedings of the Doncaster Sessions 13th January, 1836 amongst the quarter session records held at the West Yorkshire Archive Service Headquarters, Wakefield.
  • Chadwick, Doncaster Workhouse (Ripon Museum Trust leaflet, 1996)
  • Hatfield, C (c.1866) Historical Notices of Doncaster (Doncaster) - includes chapters on the poor law and workhouses and prints the workhouse dietary.
  • Leigh, C (1987) British Railways from the Air - includes a photograph of the railway engineering works at Doncaster which shows the first workhouse, situated to the left of the railway bridge in the foreground.
  • Sheardown, W (1864) The Doncaster Poor Law Union (Doncaster)
  • Tomlinson, J (1887) Doncaster from the Roman Occupation to the Present Time - contains a nineteenth-century engraving of the eighteenth-century workhouse
  • Tuffrey, P (1987)Balby with Hexthorpe (Stroud) - includes photographs of the demolition of both the first and the second workhouses.

Links

Acknowledgment

  • Many thanks to Brian Barber at Doncaster Archives who contributed much of the material on this page, and Carol Hill at Doncaster Central Library.

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